Book Cover. Time Lines and Fault Lines

This autobiography records issues prior to the ‘low dishonest decade’ of the 1930s when Europe sleepwalked its way to war. It covers a small boy’s WWII, the loss of Empire, the rise of failing states, halcyon days of global growth and the implosion of the Soviet Union.
It has been a fortunate life, often living in communities freed from the yoke of Colonialism and resenting the need for foreign investment.


The Soloman Islands’ history was bloody, dominated by inter-island warfare. New Georgian war canoes raided islands seeking ‘mana’ from skulls of their enemies. Early in the 20th century, missionaries requested the British navy to destroy the great canoe houses.


High on a misty jungle-covered mountain top on Vella Lavella, I came across mounds of skulls, most with holes in the back of their heads. The Melanesian porters fled in terror.



Sea Temperatures

PREAMBLE                                                                                                                                     In Hertford, Hereford and Hampshire, Hurricanes hardly ever happen. (Pygmalion)

Perhaps not any more – this was the prevailing belief in 1913 when Mother Earth was not given to tantrums. One hundred years later, Ghia, that ocean in the sky, and Posieden have decided to give Homo sapiens stultus a very stern warning which should be well heeded by those of our species on the north-east coastal regions of Australia.                                                                                                                           Two August weather disasters and four other major weather events are currently occurring round the globe.  The root cause of these problems is the warming of the oceans due to the blanketing affect of greenhouse gas. These events have morphed into catastrophes. Hurricane Irma, roaring out of the Atlantic, is about to add to the woes of the southern United States. In early September, three hurricanes are now high-tailing across the Atlantic Ocean through the Carribean islands towards southern United States.                          The two disasterous weather events are the monsoon in the north-east of the Indian sub-continent and hurricane Harvey that has devastated the Houston region adjacent to the Gulf of Mexico.. The strange situation is that we have heard loud and clear that ‘Houston has a problem’ but very little about the far more terrible event on the Indian sub-continent.

THE INDIAN MONSOON                                                                                      North-west India, Bhutan, Nepal and Bangladesh, covering an area of 720,000 sq. km. (NSW 809,000 sq. km.), has been devastated. An arc of the sub-continent some 1800 km in length  has been flooded and rendered virtually uninhabitable. The monsoon has affected more than 50 million people, deaths exceed 2000, more than 90,000 homes have been destroyed in Nepal and tens of thousands are affected by cholera and other water-born diseases. About 50% of Uttar Pradesh and 40% of Bangladesh (44,000 sq. km.) are flooded. Onto this devastated country have been forced around 270,000 Rohingya refugees while Myanmar maintains its genocide of this Muslim group. The monsoon originated in the warmed waters of the Bay of Bengal. Simultaneously the Mumbai region has been devastated by floods caused by 468 mm of rain in twelve hours which originated from the warmed waters of the Arabian Sea. This has been the heaviest rainfall event in over twenty years.


Indian Floodind
N E INDIAN MONSOON, FLOODED AREA.. (Relief Web. 29 August)

HURRICANE HARVEY                                                                                                By contrast, hurricane Harvey originated in the warmed waters of the Gulf of Mexico and exploded onto the Houston region where it  dumped 127 mm of rain. Comparative rainfall figures with the disastrous Hurricane Katrina (2006) are instructive; Katrina only unleashed 30 trillion litres while Harvey dumped 121 trillion litres on the regional swamp land. The hurricane flooded about 30,000 sq km along 800 km of country. It has significantly been classified as ‘one in a thousand year flood’.  30,000 to 40,000 homes have been destroyed and around 50,000 people are in shelters. (CNN, VOX, 3 September) In terms of comparative numbers, hurricane Harvey barely rates when compared to the social and material devastation generated by the Indian monsoon.                                                                     The economic significance of hurricane Harvey is that it has shut down roughly 11% of US refining capacity and 25% of US oil production which will put temporary upward pressure on global energy prices. These economic ramifications for the fragile Saudi economy and the stressed Russian economy are important and could lead to unwanted assertiveness. (Geopolitical Futures 30 August)

Cyclone Harvey

ATLANTIC HURRICANES                                                                                           In early September, three hurricanes, Katia, Jose and Irma, gestated in the North Atlantic equatorial waters. Hurricane Irma (Category 5) has already established records as the most powerful storm ever recorded with wind speeds around 300 km/hr and it is now causing devastation in Florida. It is also an unusual omen that it has roared out of the Atlantic, not the Gulf of Mexico. This is troubling since it suggests the ocean waters are heating up as fast as the shallow gulf waters. Carribean islands, over a path 200 km wide, have been devasted. The significance of Irma, Jose and Katia are their frequency and intensity so soon after hurricane Harvey. This fact has serious implications for north-eastern Australia’s coastal communities and infrastructure. (VOX  7 September)


CHINA                                                                                                                                Two typhoons have have hit the Chinese  mainland contemporaneously with the weather events in the north-eastern Indian region and the southern United States.  Hong Kong has been lashed by typhoon Hato and Macau by typhoon Pakar. The significance for all these events is they are occurring at the end of a warming northern hemisphere summer.

CLIMATE SCIENCE                                                                                                      The message coming from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is that hurricanes, typhoons and monsoons will increase in intensity and frequency because ocean waters are rising above historic averages due to atmospheric green house gases blanketing the planet and thus not permitting heat loss from the oceans. A feature of recent events is for the low preasure systems to remain stationary rather than moving inland and becoming rain depressions, which means flooding will become more catastrophic. (The Atlantic Magasine – Science)
It is concerning to note that even if carbon dioxide input into the atmosphere ceased today, upward trends would continue for over one hundred years. “After stabilisation of the carbon dioxide and other green house gases, surface air temperature will rise by a few tenths of a degree per century for a century or more. Sea level will rise over many centuries – it has already risen 20cm since the early 1900s due to volume increase from warming and contribution from Antarctic and Greenland ice melt. The slow transfer of heat to the ocean will continue over generations before stabilisation will commence.” (Climate Change, Synthesis Report, International Panel on Climate Change, 2001)

Air Temp

CYCLONE DEBBIE – A PORTENT                                                                  What has all this to do with cyclone Debbie in March 2017? A great deal, in fact; in the long run, the social and economic viability of coastal Australia will be seriously affected by summer cyclone activity.           Cyclone Debbie, at the end of the 2017 southern summer, has been branded as the deadliest event since cyclone Tracy in 1974, 43 years ago. Significantly, as with the preceding weather events overseas, cyclone Debbie has been described as unusually ferocious and was associated with heavier than usual rainfall. It cut a swathe of destruction over an area approximating to 450,000 sq km (1400 x 300 km). Rainfall records for north-eastern New South Wales were broken – 900 mm. in 48 hours was unprecedented. (The Conversation, Huffington Post, 31 March}                                                                     Psychologists have warned on the emotional impact among the affected population: people have been identified who have had to rebuild homes or business at least twice in the last few years due to cyclone activity. In the Tweed Heads-Lismore region, more than 11,000 have been made homeless, thousands of homes have been destroyed and there have been several deaths. Twenty-two Queensland coal mines curtailed production involving a $1.5 billion loss. The national economic impact is estimated to exceed $2 billion and will be a drag on first-half economic growth; it will add to inflation. (Daily Telegraph, The Australian, 3 April)
This is not intended as a rehash of destruction: this is a warning that. on current trends, future cyclones will become more destructive.

Cyclone Debbie

POSTAMBLE                                                                                                                  This offering highlights the relevance of current trends and weather disasters to the social stability and economic viability of the north-eastern Australian region. Proof, not anecdotal evidence, confirms storms, globally, are becoming more violent and destructive. Hurricane Harvey, the Indian monsoon, hurricane Irma and cyclone Debbie have all been described as the worst events in decades. All have occurred at the end of a long hot summer. Mention has been made several times of one in one hundred year events during this period but hurricane Harvey has been classified as one in a thousand year event. ((Washington Post)  What is significant is not the raw numbers but the trends. At these intensities and frequencies this global situation is becoming an enervating battle between an enraged Ghia and Homo sapiens stultus.                                                                                                    For Australian planners, the nation’s principal exports of coal in the east and iron-ore and gas in the west will face increasing production delays. It is not rational to expect that Australia can avoid increasingly destructive cyclones. The only practical precaution will be meticulous disaster planning and ensuring the Bureau of Meteorology is sufficiently resourced to provide accurate cyclone warning.

Sea Temperature

With a final look at the warming oceans, it should be noted that the North Atlantic is cooling due to ice-melt from Greenland – a very bad sign.                                                                                                                              The Govenor of Florida has requested his citizens not to fire their weapons at cyclone Irma as it will not reduce her vitality – Homo sapiens stultus!

John Hill                                                                                                                        Current Affairs Flash Points                                                                 towawdsthefinalhour.com                                       lurgashall@westnet.com.au

READER COMMENT                                                                                                                        1  I remain unconvinced and am disappointed to see you confuse weather and climate. I dispute the contention that storms and floods of this magnetude have never happened before and that carbon dioxide contributes to global warming. The events you refer to are not unique whenever planet Earth was warm enough and had an atmosphere and oceans.. Yes, the effects have been devastating but this is the result of increased populations in vunerable locations and continuing failure (or ability) of Governments or Communities to undertake serious mitigation.                                                                                       I do not regard CNN, Washington Post or IPCC as anything but fake news. I will stick with Benny Peiser, Joane Nova, Jenifer Marohasy and Geof Derrick. You are welcome to attach yourself to Al Gore, Tim Flannery, John Cook, Will Stephan, the Labor Party, Malcolm Turnbull  and other Green and Lefty frauds perpetrating  the huge, costly and destructive  scam on a gullible public.

2  It always amuses me how often we have once in a hundred years’ events. Personnally without wanting to appear too gloomy I think we are only seeing the  beginning of the effects of global warming. Even if efforts to reduce greenhouse gases are implemented – by no means certain – it could be all to late.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) stated recently – current data bases indicate no significant observed trends in global tropical cyclone frequency over the past century. The trend in numbers of major hurricanes making United States landfall has been slightly downward over the past century. The catagory 5/4 hurricanes Harvey and Irma have ended an unprecedented 12 year hurricane drought.



Book Cover

This autobiography records a kalaidoscope of historical and political anecdotes and  maverick occupations that are now no longer widely supported in this ‘brave new world’. This is an unusual life story of a mining geologist who, by good fortune, found himself in strange places well off the beaten track. This autobiography is published by Austin Macauley, London and is available from bookshops and on line


These sei whales were harpooned far from the factory ship, partially inflated with a preservative gas and set adrift with radio beacon attached, buoy boats would collect them and deliver them to the factory ship.



Flensers cutting the blubber from the carcass which will be rendered down to whale oil. The remainder will be boiled down to meat meal and bone meal. The pots below deck have been opened releasing clouds of steam. In less than an hour the whale will have been processed and the next whale would be on the flensing deck.

John Hill.  lurgashall@westnet.com.au —————————————–Current Affairs Flash Points.  towardsthefinalhour.com




Revealed is the hypocrisy, cant and calumny of the Coalition towards its bête noire, marriage equality. Over many months, our parliamentarians specious comment on “their undertaking, their promise, their reluctance to break faith, their wish for the people to decide” and similar cant has lost all ring of sincerity. If these sentiments were based on respect for the Australian people they might be taken seriously. Unfortunately this is not so. For members of the Coalition, incredibly, it is not the destination but the journey that is important. Behind this facade of verbal rectitude lies a trail of dishonoured pledges, broken promises and dissimulation by senior politicians and their acolytes. Why is this promise to the Australian people so important? To implement a plebiscite runs the risk of fueling sectarian discord among the Australian people.

THE UGLY TRUTH                                                                                                       The Australian government purports to be non-sectarian. It would be instructive to ascertain which decision-makers are prepared  to incur an expense  of $160 million rather than reveal a faith based prejudice on the floor of the House during debate and subsequent ‘Lock the Doors’. Verily, some parliamentarians, stunted by dogma, would fear the third cock crow. Parliamentarians are elected to govern, not hide behind the the dictates of their own faith.  Australia is non-sectarian!   In recent years, the dishonoured pledges and backdowns perpetrated by the Coalition government (and Labor) is astonishing; there are dozens of separate issues. (see references) Just three examples of broken promises and an exposure of dissimulation represent less than 5% of these records:

  • Paid parental leave, a signature policy, later abandoned.
  • Hospital funding cuts, changes were to be implemented in three years time, they were immediately applied.
  • Superannuation changes, adverse changes would not be made – this was not so.
  • An example of dissimulation – the much vaunted South Australian submarine project was touted as a benefit to the state. Currently there is no construction tender, only a design contract in France. A  decision on a construction contract may only eventuate around 2019.

In his article, Gottliebsen states “Trust in politicians is further eroded. The political class in Australia needs to take a good look at itself.”

THE LAST REFRAIN                                                                                                 With respect to Marriage Equality the media needs to lift its game; reporters and interviewers verge on the supine in their questions to politicians. There is no vigorous probing as to why a plebiscite is  essential and why there is the objection to a parliamentary debate. Since so many promises have been broken, what is the objection to breaking this one particularly as it will immediately benefit people and save $160 million. Is it possible some wish to save themselves the embarrassment of standing up for their principles or risk being accused  of apostasy? The public deserve answers since,perhaps, only half-a-dozen people are delaying a democratic process.                                           It is a matter for despair that our politicians are less by and more large purveyors of platitudes and soothing words. By hiding the bad news they tend to be wolves in sheep’s clothing. The true situation on any matter is either obtained from investigative journalists, experts or those au fait with current events.

The Wolf

The Honorable Michael Kirby, AC. CMG. has has added the firm voice of leadership to this sorry saga by stating he will not support a postal vote proposed by this Government that has clearly abrogated its responsibility to govern for the people of Australia.

Austin,  A. 18 May 2015. Budget backflips bring broken promises. Indepentent Australia.
Gottliebsen, R. 8 May 2016. Coalition and Labor’s broken promises have shattered voter trust. The Australian.

JOHN HUGH HILL, lurgashall@westnet.com.au                                                                          Current Affairs Flash Points, towardsthefinalhour.com






Sea Power

DARWIN – A CHINESE PORT                                                                          China has expressed concern over the Strait of Malacca as a vunerable choke point for its energy supplies from the Middle East oilfields. In the near future two strategic straits may enter maritime discussions, the Torres Strait and the Bering Strait.                                The 99 year lease of Darwin port to  Landbridge, a Chinese company, by the Northern Territory government has now acquired an added significance. Darwin is well placed for Chinese authorities to monitor and provide services to commercial and other shipping using the choke points of the Lombok and Torres Straits and the developing oil fields in the Timor Sea. Both these straits are used by the West Australian iron ore trade to China and the by vessels bound for east Asian ports and North America.                                    Darwin could well become a valuable strategic pendant hanging of the ‘string of pearls’ within the One Belt One Road Chinese expansion policy


MALACCA, LOMBOK & TORRES STRAITS (csba-airsea- battle.jpg)

CHOKE POINTS & MARITIME TRADE                                                    Choke points are critical to the protection of maritime trade routes. With  China expressing concern on Indian navy surveillance of its military vessels in the Malacca Strait the increasing importance of the Lombok and Torres Straits are becoming apparent. The Torres Strait is the only direct route between the Indian and Pacific Oceans and is nominally under the control of the United Nations Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), the navigable channel for commercial shipping is 800m wide and 13m deep. This constitutes a navigational and stategic choke point. Control of choke points in times of international tension or hostilities is vital for the preservation of national interests. Examples of srategic choke points are: the Danish Strait into the Baltic Sea, the Straits of Dover into the North Sea, the Strait of Gibralter into the Mediterranean , the Gulf of Hormuz into the Persian Gulf, the Malacca Strait into the South China Sea. The Lombok and Torres Straits are now becoming increasingly important as safe maritime passages, as a consequence military build up will follow. Those with vested interests  are Australia, Indonesia and China.


THE WORLD ACCORDING TO CHINA. ARCTIC TRADE ROUTES  (Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Administration)

As an extension to this scenario the Bering Strait between the United States and Russia is looming as a choke point with China very much ‘The Third Man’. Commercial shipping has doubled over the past five years and will steadily increase as the Arctic ice cap melts to create wider, safer seaways. China is developing trade routes west to Europe and east to Canada and the United States. Unfortunately Australia is situated far to the east distant from the trading hubs, but could become a way point for oil imports to China from the Persian Gulf.

John Hill,  lurgashall@westnet.com.au                                                       Current Affairs Flash Points,   towardsthefinalhour.com


AUSTRALIA – Unsustainable Social Security. July 2017



 Living and housing

PREAMBLE                                                                                                                          The catalyst for this offering is a statement by John Roskam, Institute of Public Affairs, to the effect that after twenty years of economic growth, the Australian welfare state is becoming unsustainable particularly since 51% of the work force is not paying tax. (Between the Lines, ABC RN, 9 July, 2017) This is a significant statement when taken in conjunction with other economic and  social factors bedevilling the Australian nation.                                                                    The inescapable fact is currently that Australian living standards are drifting lower,  under employment is drifting higher and the natural resources ‘boom’ has peaked. Social security and health expenses have risen strongly over the past decade and are becoming unsustainable. No political Party has admitted to this over arching consolidating situation.
In the foreseeable future Australians will face the choice of whether to massively increase export income, tighten the collective belt or borrow money from overseas to maintain an unsustainable life style. The following comments are an attempt to define issues that singley are manageable  but collectively will make it difficult to “put another prawn on the barbie”, unless solved.

THE LUCKY COUNTRY                                                                                               Re-enter Donald Horne, author of The Lucky Country. In 1964, Horne warned Australians were not appreciating that their apparent good luck was built on ephemera that could not last. First gold, then the sheep’s back, then followed the curse of natural resource endowment and finally a growing dependency on the welfare state. Horne wrote “Throughout the world the basis of material prosperity is likely, for the first time in history, to be with clever educated people. The need to build cleverness is considered to be unAustralian.” In 2017, this sentiment has been repeated – see Education in the next section. Historically, politicians and the media have deliberately misconstrued the title, resulting in Australians being lulled into a false sense of security. For a quarter of a century Australians have basked in steady, stable growth (GFC excepted) due to a demand for minerals from global growth not from their own intellectual effort.

Trickle down

Materialising from subliminal shadows are recurring budget deficits to $30 billion a year, rising national debt of $474 billion and increasing (Jan. 2017) and serious personal debt of 123% of GDP, third highest in the world. (macroeconomics.com, Feb. 2017) In a buoyant manufacturing export oriented economy, the above data would not be of critical concern but in an economy stressed by the curse of natural resource endowment, this is a serious situation. Somehow, somewhere Government expenditure must be reined in, taxation increased or export income generated.

EDUCATION AND COMPETITIVENESS                                                             “Lets start at the very beginning” so trills “The Sound Of Music” and so it should be, but an OECD report places Australia 27th out of 35 advanced countries in terms of expenditure on early childhood education.  (Education at a Glance, 2014)                                                               The above situation is reflected in the OECD PISA  for surveys between 2000 and 2012 which confirmed Australian declining education ratings namely, Maths – 6 to 19, Science – 8 to 16 and Reading – 4 to 13. (OECD Australian PISA Rankings) The falling standards reinforce comments by the former Chief Scientist, Professor Chubb, who warned about Australia’s declining STEM ability. Among the findings of the Davos Economic Forum (January 2017) was the conclusion that Australia’s ability to benefit from automation and artificial intelligence developments would be hampered by lack of preparation and a deficiency in STEM ability. A contributing nail to this educational coffin is the current Government budget that is reducing university income and restricting 457 visas to academic staff – another impediment to creating innovative exports.

ILL PREPARED PRODUCTS  (heraldsun.com.au)

A final word on education by Professor Greg Austin, Centre for Cyber Research, Australian Defence Force Academy, is instructive –  “Over the past twenty years Government has been fostering a culture of incompetence in training and computing skills in cyber security” – which brings Australia back to the full meaning of The Lucky Country!

TAXATION  AND EMPLOYMENT                                                                       The recent ‘Between the Lines’ program indicated 51% of the work force is not paying tax. Digging deeper it is recorded that 48% of Australians, 12.2 million ‘income units’, pay no tax. Further, the top 10% of income earners contribute 47% of national income tax. After welfare payments the average Australian only pays $3,424 in tax after deducting welfare benefits. (National Centre for Social Economic Modelling, The Conversation, July 2015)                                    In a population of around 24 million, the low ‘income units’ become understandable when it is revealed that there are 1.1 million registered under-employed while the unemployment rate has risen from 5.7 to 5.9%. (SMH, March 2017) In the youth sector, the jobless rate at 13.5% is at the highest level in forty years  while under-employment hovers round 18%. (The Guardian, 27 March 2017) The continuing rising under-employment trend will continue to reduce ‘income units’ and increase demand on the social security and health budgets.                                                                                                         To compound this problem of rising under-employment and social security costs the BIS Oxford Group have forecast a serious slump in building activity within the next two years. This will reduce Australia’s declining ‘income units’ and impose a downward pressure on GDP.

income units

Australia, blessed with the curse of natural resources, despite excellent research institutions, has languished in developing industries driven by technological advancement capable of replacing export income from natural resources. As the Davos Forum concluded, Australia’s collective skills are not yet in place.                                 While a high value export industry can absorb above-average wage rates, it is concerning that Australian rates, within a relatively unskilled work force, is significantly higher than rates in competitor manufacturing countries. (Table 1)

COUNTRY$A per hourCOUNTRY$A per hour
Australia17.70United Kingdom14.66
New Zealand14.22France14.18
United States10.08


SOCIAL SERVICE AND HEALTH COSTS                                                       The preceeding  information provides a backdrop to forecast unsustainable social security and health costs. The Australian Institute for Health (2014) reported health costs have increased from $4,600 per person per year (2002) to $6,400 per person per year (2012), that is from 8.6 to 9.7% of GDP and costs are still increasing by around 4% year on year. The projection of Government spending by portfolio (Table 2), provides a funding challenge for those born today who will be forty-something  in 2060 – the ‘sins of their fathers ‘ will indeed weigh upon them. In confirmation, the Institute of Actuaries determined Health Cover costs will rise from 6.5% to 10.8% of GDP over the next 50 years.


T2  Projection of Government spending (% GDP)                               Productivity Commission

CATAGORY2011 - 122059 - 60
Health Care6.511.0
Age Pension3.03.8
Age Care0.82.5
Health Education5.55.0


The summary below illustrates the impact of Social Security and Health on the National budget.


EXPENSE$A billionREVENUE$A billion
Social Security164Private Tax210
Health75Fringe B Tax4
Education33Superannuation Tax9
Defence30Company & RR Tax80
Public Services 21OtherTax8
Other Functions48Excise4
Other Purposes93Sales Tax67
Fuel Excise19
Non Tax Items29


Deficit is 445 minus 464 = ($19) billion. The combined Social Security and Health budget totals $329 billion, which is equivalent to 51% of expenses or 54% of revenue. With a population of 24 million, this equates to a cost per person per year of $9,900, say $10,000. Budget deficit projections in billions for years 2018-19 ($16), 2019-20 ($3), and 1920-21 ($11). The Grattan Institute forecasts that deficits will continue until at least 2025. (Australia Exports and Budget, June 2017). The deficit will be under additional pressure due to declining corporate tax rates from 30% to 25% over the next few years.

AUSTRALIAN TRADE BALANCE                                                                       For the year 2016-17, the Australian terms of trade were in the red. (DFAT) Total exports were $259 billion and total imports were $267 billion, therefore a trade deficit of $8 billion. For three years from 2013, Australia’s terms of trade were negative to the tune of billions of dollars. Since late 2016, terms of trade have dramatically improved but this may not be all good news. The trade surplus is, in part, due to a decline in imports which reflect a softening in domestic demand due to weak wages growth and increasing under-employment. A dangerous sign – Australians were using savings for the Christmas splurge. Based on this information, Christmas 2018 might be a commercial disaster. There has also been a small rise in commodity prices – the economy again saved by the curse of natural resources endowment. (CNBC-Economy, April 2017)

Terms of Trade
TERMS OF TRADE 2013 to 2017 (DFAT)   Quarterly & Trend                                         Is the declining trend real or just an inflexion on an upward trend?

The Australian economy requires a strong positive terms of trade to offset budget deficits – major contributors being social security and health, and to assist in the annual interest payments of $16 billion (and rising) on the $474 billion (and rising) of national debt. (DFAT: The Treasurer, smh, 29 January 2017)
Australia’s salvation must primarily rest with a strong terms of trade generated by STEM, artificial intelligence and automation. And so again to “The Sound of Music”, “Lets start at the very beginning.”!!


POSTAMBLE                                                                                                                   The purpose of this article is to present a snapshot or illustrate a trend that will create a problem funding increasing Social Security and Health portfolios. This situation has already been described as unsustainable.                                                                                                                  For an economy able to fund its own operating expenses, excluding infrastructure improvements, revenue from terms of trade, tax and other sources should cover other outgoings. We have heard the Government bleat “we must live within our means”. It is not doing this.
Australia is in an invidious position for several cogent reasons:

  • under employment is increasing,
  • ‘tax units’ are decreasing,
  • export income is still reliant on natural resources,
  • export income to replace natural resources is not being generated fast enough,
  • the education system is not adequately preparing the young Australian workforce skills in STEM, artificial intelligence and automation.

The rising trend in social security and health costs, if continued, will be a contributing factor to jeopardising Australia’s AAA credit rating. If savings cannot be made to the budget or income boosted by exports then Australia’s living standards will decline further, then interest rates on the national debt will rise.
The 2017 budget levy on banks to raise $6 billion over four years does nothing to offset the $239 billion (and increasing) social security and health budget.

Do something

John Hill                                                                                                                                     Current Affairs Flash Points                                                                                                           towardsthefinalhour.com                                                                                                         lurgashall@westnet.com.au







TIMELINES & FAULTLINES Book Review July 2017 Pt 1


Book Cover

This autobiography records issues prior to the ‘low dishonest decade” of the 1930s, through World War 2, the loss of Empire, the rise of failing states, the halcyon decades of post war global growth, the convulsive 1990s decade commencing with the implosion of the Soviet Union.  Finally to a state of non-retirement during which the curse of natural resources endowment has become obvious for Australia. This autobiography is published by Austin Macauley, London and is available in book shops and on line.


Grass Trees
Xanthorrhoea glauca,Timor Bush Fire, 2009.

As a member of the Timor Bush Fire Brigade I was involved in a massive bush fire that destroyed an extensive area of eucalypt forest and pasture. The roar of the flames and the choking smoke were a fitting backdrop for stands of burning Xanthorroea which resembled martyrs at the stake in the reign of Queen Mary in 1555.

Rain fell to finally quench the fires. The sunset, due to the smoke haze, was among the most speseacular ever seen in the Timor locality.Sunset

NORTH KOREA – Spectre of the Cold War


Missile on Parade (scmp.com)

North Korea – Spectre of the Cold War

Justice Michael Kirby addressed the Sydney Institute on the 21st June dealing with North Korea’s human rights record including comment on the case of Mr O F Warmbier. The ensuing discussion, while relevant to the specific issue, was unable to articulate a solution to the current geopolitical situation.

The overarching problem is the nature of the North Korean regime and the nuclear threat it poses. The Cold War between the Warsaw Pact and NATO (1945-90) did not erupt into a nuclear holocaust because NATO maintained an around-the-clock airborne nuclear armed vigil. It was a case of mutual deterrence . If the Soviet Union had released ICBMs, major Russian cities would have been annihilated by incoming NATO weapons.

Today a comparable situation is emerging should North Korea direct missiles towards American interests or South Korea it would probably be neutralised by airborne and submarine-based ballistic missiles.

America is in the difficult situation should a definite immediate threat become manifest. There would be a retaliation that would have to, simultaneously, destroy the armaments along the ‘demilitarised zone’ and identifiable missile launch sites. The urgent problem is how to prevent North Korea progressing to perfecting its delivery system. To expect China to accomplish this is to misunderstand the geopolitical situation. Although China supports the United Nations sanctions on North Korea, it does not push too hard  due to concern over regime instability that could precipitate millions of refugees crossing the border into China. Furthermore, North Korea’s  nuclear ambitions are partially diverting America from China’s increasing hegemony in the East and South China Seas. A wild card into this situation is that America might reach a clandestine agreement with China on the 9 Dash Line in return for neutralising North Korea’s nuclear delivery threat. This arrangement might be considered in conjunction with negotiating a more balanced trading relationship that would boost American export industries.

Lessons from the 1962 Cuban missile crisis could be useful. China, as a proxy Russia,  might convince North Korea, as a proxy Cuba, to dismantle its nuclear capability under supervision, in return for development funds and a guarantee of national security. A sweetener for China might be that America would withdraw its B52 nuclear bombers from the region. Decisions would also involve Japan. North Korea is no Cuba but a ‘defuse’ mechanism might lie in this logic.

Missiles (smh.com)
Surface to Air Missiles. (smh.com)

A frontal attack poses an unacceptable threat for America. To bring North Korea to nuclear impotence would require a simultaneously stepped military assault:

  • stealth bombers must destroy anti-aircraft missile systems and command centres;
  • the virtually instantaneous destruction of thousands of artillery pieces along the DMZ trained on Seoul and nearby cities harbouring some 24 million souls;
  • the  massing of an invasion fleet that could not be hidden from China or North Korea causing the latter to consider a pre-emptive strike.
Artillery (netnews.vn)
Massed Artillery (netnews.vn)

There may be members of the International Community that have hoped for a modified French Revolution (1789) or a Bolshevik Revolution (1917) or preferably a Soviet implosion (1991). However, these alternatives may fade in the light of new relationships being developed in East Asia.

The President of South Korea, Moon Jae-in, favours engagement with North Korea which could morph into a rapprochement between Pyongyang and Seoul. In addition there are deepening trading ties between China and South Korea. Should closer ties develop between the three nations there may be pressure on America to reduce its forces in South Korea. The Kim dynasty is only interested in its own survival not in the well being of the North Korean people. Ultimately, to ensure a safe haven, the current ruling elite might be accepted in China or be ensconced in an enclave in North Korea. Pure conjecture!!

Should the three East Asian nations form a closer association, then America might need to rethink its ‘Pivot to Asia’ policy and southern members of the ANZUS Alliance may have to review their relationship with East Asian nations.

JOHN HILL                                                                                                                                    Current Affairs Flash Points                                                                                                  towardsthefinalhour.com                                                                                                         lurgashall@westnet.com.au






















































Book Cover

This autobiography chronicles history, painful politics and social issues in the aftermath of imploding Empires and the rise of Failing States, it is about the life of a mining geologist  living and working in far away places as events swirled around him through the 20th century and into the 21st century. In non-retirement the author ran a cattle property in the Upper Hunter, New South Wales. He now lives on the coast north of Sydney.

Cattle Muster
CATTLE MUSTER AND WORKING STOCK DOG, LURGASHALL, NSW.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Cattle dogs are an essential requirement for the cattle industry. Most cattle are amenable to mustering but frequently some animals require more robust treatment to drive them into a fresh paddock or the mustering yards. Despite their size steers can move with great speed and ferocity.


This was no ritual fighting, it would continue for a long time, the biting and kicking with clawed feet created bleeding injuries. At intervals the kangaroos would turn back to back to lick wounds then in a trice it would be on again. Ultimately one , bleeding and limping, would hop away while the victor would sidle up to a quietly eating doe nearby.

TIMELINES & FAULTLINES  is available from Amazon and UK book shops. It is available as a Kindle. TIMELINES & FAULTLINES is published by Austin Macauley, London..

John Hill                                                                                                                                     Current Affairs Flash Points                                                                                                 towardsthefinalhour.com                                                                                                        lurgashall@westnet.com.au



Mercury – God of Commerce and Financial Gain (Walkers 541482)

“Exports and Education” should be the Australian Government’s budget mantra, not “Jobs and Growth” or “Fairness, Opportunity and Security”. Neither defines the Australian problem as does “Education and Exports”.

Export income is the key to Australia’s future prosperity and the control of its annual deficit. The problem is Australia does not produce enough income to meet its expenses. Australia’s national debt as at April 2017 now stands at $552 billion (RBA) and the Reserve Bank of Australia must keep interest rates down in order to minimise interest repayments and to promote economic activity. It is not enough to promote jobs without putting the emphasis on export income which will create a strong balance of trade to reduce the monthly trading deficit. Unless this happens, there will be a slow devaluation of the currency which will only assist the export industry if it does not rely on overseas inputs. Strong exports are the key to Australia’s future.

Australia’s problem is well illustrated in the population density map of this island continent. The virtually unpopulated inland produced 60% in 2014 of Australia’s export income derived from natural resources and farm produce (beef and wheat). Another 9% was derived from education and tourism. The remaining 31% came from financial services, agriculture, chemicals, pharmaceuticals and specialised engineering products.

Australian Population
Australian Population Distribution (ABS) 1Dot = 1000 People.


Australian Exports
Australia’s top goods and services exports (DFAT 2014) are set out below:


EXPORTS$A billionPercent of Value
Minerals, Oil, Gas15246
Beef, Wheat145
Education, Tourism319

Natural resources are still the economic pillar but will have to be replaced if Australia is not to become a Chinese quarry to be mothballed at will. Agricultural products will become more important but will be unable to fill the void should natural resource exports decline. Unfortunately educational exports may be held back due to budget restraints placed on universities, the unfavourable Davos report and the declining OECD education ratings. (See May Blog – Education)

Currently, significant export growth can only come from non-labour intensive industries such as specialised engineering, medical advances, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, food products and legal services. The financial services sector will face increasing competition from Singapore and Hong Kong.

The ABS 2016-17 Budget Figures for Australia define a problem: within the expenses are costs for health – $71 billion, social security – $158 billion,  that is $229 billion which is 55% of Government revenue. In the long term this is unsustainable, clearly export income is a priority. The Gratten Institute (CEO, John Daley, April 2013) has concluded that Australia will face a decade of budget deficits,  adding to this problem the proposed corporate tax cuts could exacerbate this problem if the American experience is considered – see below.


Budget Item$ billion
Capital Investment3
Final Deficit(37)

In assessing Australia’s long term export potential, two factors will ensure interest rates will remain low due to a continuing sluggish economy and the continuing  annual deficits which will put Australia’s credit rating at risk. These factors are the explosion in public and private debt and the Government debt to GDP ratio and its relevance to Standard and Poor’s ratings – see below.

National Financial Problem
Australia’s looming problem is the inexorable rise of the Public (Government) and Private. debt, as far back as 2007 the RBA warned of this dangerous situation  when debt was only $58 billion. As of April 2017 this figure has risen to $552 billion while Private debt stands at $2.7 trillion and both rising, (RBA and Debt Clock).

Australian Debt
The Rise of National and Private Debt as a Percent of GDP (AFR 12 May 2015) Red – National Debt         Black – Private Debt    ( AFR, 12 May 2015)

Interest payments on Government debt will rise from $17.6 billion in 2016-17 to over $20 billion on a projected debt of $659 billion by 2020 (The Australian, MYEFO 20 December 2016). The continuing low interest rate (1.5%) and the sluggish economy are not conducive to generating a strong export-led economy. The opinion emanating from Union Bank of Switzerland is that increasing debt and continuing budget deficits might place further pressure on Australia’s AAA credit rating. Should there be a downgrade there would be a serious rise in annual interest payments. The figure below illustrates Australia’s vulnerability to a credit rating adjustment leading up to 2020.

AAAShould Australia Really be a AAA Credit?     ( AFR 12 May, 2016)
 S & P  AA                               AAA       AAA                                           ???

A Snapshot of Exports Past
Data on Australia’s top ten trading is revealing – there is imbalance and emerging concerns.


ChinaIron Ore, Coal, Gold1024953
JapanIron Ore, Coal, Beef502129
United StatesBeef, Aircraft/Space Parts, Alcohol1539(24)
South KoreaIron Ore, Coal, Petroleum251015
SingaporePetroleum, Gold917(8)
New ZealandComputer Parts, Vehicles, Pharmaceuticals1111_
BritainCoal, Gold, Lead812(4)
ThailandGold, Petroleum, Aluminium814(6)
MalaysiaPetroleum, Copper, Nickel710(3)
GermanyGold, Oil Seed, Fruit711(4)

There are two concerns. Firstly, there is obviously a disproportionate reliance on coal and iron ore for export income. There will be a slow global decline in coal usage as alternative energy sources come on stream. With iron ore there are vast new iron ore deposits being opened up in Africa and South America. Regarding iron ore deposits in Brazil, it is concerning that the Chinese government has indicated it is increasing production from this source in order to reduce Australia’s near monopoly on iron ore supply. Secondly, the Australian services sector representing 49% of export income, employs 80% of the work force. By implication, natural resources and agriculture which produce 51% of export income employs only 20% of the work force.  (See Table below). If Australia is to prosper these statistics must change. It is well documented that the “trickle down” effect does not apply to nations blessed but ultimately cursed with natural resources.

Australia’s reliance on natural resource and farm product (DFAT, 2014) is illustrated below:


Minerals, Oil, Gas15246
Beef, Wheat145
Education, Services319

Future Exports
The next decade is slated to be one of immense growth opportunities for Australian export industries which are food manufacture, oil and gas extraction, education, tourism and legal services promoting south-east Asian industrialisation.  With a growing Asian middle class around 750 million, annual growth rate of these industries will be baby foods – 2.9%, dairy/processed foods – 2.1%, education – 3.1%. (NAB-IBIS World 13 November 2013)

The above projected growth rates are significant taken in conjunction with the extent of Chinese investment and obviously ongoing acquisitions of Australian assets. Examples are – the dairy,  wine, beef and power industries. (See Chinese Foreign Investment, May Blog, 2016) It should now be clearer why Darwin port is currently controlled by Chinese interests. Darwin will become an important periphoral to the Chinese One Belt One Road expansion policy.

If Australia is to increase export income and provide secure power for its export industries, it will have to take a more hard-nosed approach towards the  oil, coal and gas potential of this continent. One of Australia’s problems is the rising under-employment and slowly falling standards of living among the citizens, not the political elite. Queensland is desperate for coal development and jobs in the Galilee Basin; South Australia would benefit from oil exploration in the Bight (abcnews.com 16 November 2016); New South Wales, Victoria and Western Australia would no longer be facing a power crisis if shale gas production was encouraged.  When only a few hundred jobs may be created in any part of the country becomes newsworthy, one wonders how thousands of jobs and billions in export income can be foregone by lack of firm Government policy. The Government is desperate to encourage “Jobs and Growth” and yet projects are stalled or delayed despite stringent safeguards.

Postamble                                                                                                                    Australia has been blessed with the curse of natural resources. The past is now stalling our future. Global studies have proved that economies with abundant natural resources tend to industrialise less rapidly than natural resource-scarce economies (NBER Working Paper 5398, 1995). For Australia to materially generate nation wide export growth, OECD education ratings must be significantly improved, the Davos findings on STEM expertise must be addressed and university funding must be increased to permit export directed research.

Australian Exports, the National Objective (Exports-shipping-trade.jpg)

While the 2016-17 Budget does promote export growth, there appears little specific short term incentive that encourages exports. Long term corporate tax reduction, existing trade deals and promotion assistance are peripherals to the core problem of education improvement, university funding and innovation. Concerning corporate tax reduction, both President Regan and Bush reduced corporate tax rate to stimulate the American economy, the result was devastating budget deficits. President Clinton raised taxes, created jobs and reduced the deficit. Has the Government considered this vignette? (The Conversation, 13 May 2017)

This month much has been made of Australia’s recession-free growth during the past two decades by the Treasurer. Looking behind this soothing statement there should be concern not euphoria. The construction industry did indeed inflate the GDP, however, it did not contribute to export income unless there was massive foreign investment. The image below illustrates Australia’s dangerous reliance  on mineral exports over the past twelve years. Currently the value of mineral exports is decreasing as China’s demand weakens and this will reinforce the  inexorable slow decline in Australian living standards, this will continue unless alternative exports can be generated. The Treasurer’s statement obscures this real unpalatable truth but is in keeping with my September 2016 article ‘The Australian Economy – Stupid’.

       AUSTRALIA’S MAJOR EXPORTS  1997 -2009
Key:  Mineral Resources,  Rural,  Manufacturing

Commodity Exports
Australia’s major commodity export earnings 1997 – 2009 (abate.gov.au)

“The latest resource boom which commenced in 2003 has already doubled Australia’s terms of trade and is slated to go higher due to oil and gas exports. The growth in mineral commodity exports since 2003 has been phenomenal. Iron ore increased from $5.3 billion to $34 billion (2009) while coal (steaming and metallurgical) increased from $10.9 billion to $34.7 billion (2009). This cannot continue.

On the future of coal – “Some 41% (2009) of global electricity is generated using coal and this proportion is continuing to increase. The trend is towards an increasing use of coal, despite climate change concerns, and the transition away from coal may take decades.”(M Roarty, Resources sector and its contribution to the nation. Parliament of Australia, 23 September, 2010)

Australia has to throw off the curse of relying on natural resources and encourage specialised manufacturing, rural production, university research and education export income otherwise Australia’s standard of living will continue to decline. With inflation at 1.5%, wage growth at 1.9% and a sluggish economy at 2.4 % growth, the May budget may do little to lift Australia out of Government’s current fiscal morass.

Last Word                                                                                                                                             Professor Greg Austin, Centre for Cyber Research, Australian Defence Academy in a radio interview commented that over the past twenty years the Government has been “fostering a culture of incompetence” in relation to training in computing skills and cyber security. The current budget arrangement to implement restrictive policies on the 457 Skilled Visa program will add to the dearth of Australian STEM expertise. This policy does reinforce the Davos findings on Australia’s ability to benefit from automation and artificial intelligence developments. All this does lead back to a budget that does not adequately address poor OECD education ratings and a continued reliance on natural resource exports. (Background Briefing, ABC RN, 11June 2017)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          

John Hill                                                                                                                                     Current Affairs Flash Points                                                                                                   towardsthefinalhour.com                                                                                        lurgashall@westnet.com.au